What You Study

(Civil Engineering)

What You Study 2016-01-07T11:39:39+00:00

Core engineering studies include systems design, mathematics, materials, fluid dynamics and thermodynamics. Civil engineering study areas include sustainability, environmental processes, geo-technical and hydraulic engineering, transport, and project management. Interaction with industry professionals is available through guest lectures, field and project work.

Structural Engineering is concerned with the research, planning, design, construction, inspection, monitoring, maintenance, rehabilitation and demolition of permanent and temporary structures, as well as structural systems and their components. It also considers the technical, economic, environmental, aesthetic and social aspects of structures.

Structures can include buildings, bridges, in-ground structures, footings, frameworks and space frames, including those for motor vehicles, space vehicles, ships, aeroplanes and cranes. They can be composed of any structural material including composites and novel materials.

Structural engineering is a creative profession that makes a significant contribution to infrastructure, industry, as well as residential and recreational developments.

Structural engineers carry out strength calculations and prepare drawings of structures to ensure they are strong enough to avoid collapse when loaded. The most common structures dealt with are buildings and bridges, but tunnels, walls to hold back earth embankments, large tanks and silos as well as mining structures, also form part of a structural engineer’s work. Specialist areas include oil drilling platforms and associated infrastructure, shipbuilding and aircraft design.

Career Advancement

Structural engineers generally work in teams and look at the way a structure is to be built. They ensure buildings are strong enough to withstand natural forces and loads imposed by the nature of its use. Through research and the testing of both form and material, new solutions are developed which promote safer, more environmentally friendly buildings and structures.

Some structural engineers work in the design of structures (carrying out the strength calculations and supervising drawings), others specialize in the building of structures and some work in research. Structural engineers commonly work with architects, builders, mechanical, electrical and chemical engineers to ensure that all parts of the structure are safe and capable of fulfilling their intended function. They also make sure structures use appropriate materials efficiently.


The average salary for a Structural Engineer is Rs 518,236 per year. Experience has a moderate effect on pay for this job. The skills that increase pay for this job the most are Autocad 2000i, SAP2000, and Engineering Design. People in this job generally don’t have more than 10 years’ experience.

Transportation engineering, as practiced by civil engineers, primarily involves planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of transportation facilities. The facilities support air, highway, railroad, pipeline, water, and even space transportation. The design aspects of transportation engineering include the sizing of transportation facilities (how many lanes or how much capacity the facility has), determining the materials and thickness used in pavement designing the geometry (vertical and horizontal alignment) of the roadway (or track).

Transportation engineers focus on the design, construction and maintenance of transport systems. Most entry-level positions in the field will require a bachelor’s degree in engineering, while advancement in the field may require a master’s degree in the more specific discipline of transportation engineering.

The major focus of transportation engineers includes main thoroughfares and highways due to their overt use. Highway engineering, infrastructure design and the materials that make up local and national highways comprise important aspects of a transportation engineer’s job. Though roads often require the most attention of engineers in this field, they may also work on railways, airports, seaports and canals.

Career Advancement

Most entry-level jobs in transportation engineering require a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering. Some schools offer transportation engineering as an undergraduate degree focus or concentration. An accredited bachelor’s degree program in civil or transportation engineering may last 4-6 years. Coursework often includes calculus, physics, chemistry, solid-fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, as well as professional studies in traffic control, optimization and environmental issues.

Advancement in the transportation engineering workplace may require a candidate to get a master’s or doctorate degree. Unlike most undergraduate programs, graduate-level studies may offer a specific focus on transportation engineering. Professional courses may include pavement design, municipal infrastructure design or travel demand forecasting. Some schools offer specialized concentrations in highway engineering, traffic safety or urban development.


A Civil Engineer, Road / Highway earns an average salary of Rs 544,825 per year. Experience strongly influences pay for this job. Most people with this job move on to other positions after 20 years in this career.

Surveying is the technique and science of accurately finding out the position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually, but not always, associated with positions on the surface of the Earth. They are often used to make land maps and boundaries for ownership of land. A person who does the surveying is called a surveyor. In order to find the information they need, surveyors use geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law.

A surveyor is a person who has the skills to accurately find out the position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually, positions on the surface of the Earth. Finding these points is called “surveying”. Surveyors are needed to make land maps and boundaries for ownership of land. In order to find the information they need, surveyors use geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law.

Surveying engineers work in city, county, and state offices to measure and record the geographic elements of the earth. A surveyor is a professional who has obtained a 4-year degree in surveying or a related field and a professional license. They may work in offices or in the field, supervising other individuals or taking charge of surveying projects to obtain specific records.

Career Advancement

The National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) notes that individual states set the regulations for licensure of professional surveyors, but that there is a common four-step process for licensure (www.ncees.org). There are two exams that aspiring surveyors must pass. The first is the Fundamentals of Surveying (FS) exam, which covers topics like boundary law and administration, field data acquisition, GIS concepts and principles of land development. The second exam is the Professional Surveyor (PS) exam, which includes federal and state standards and an overview of the federal land system. The PS exam also covers legal concepts, like controlling elements in legal descriptions, types of conveyances, types of surveys, surveying practices, project management and contracts. After passing the PS exam, the NCEES notes that individuals must gain at least four years of work experience. During this time, an aspiring surveyor typically works with a licensed professional surveyor.


The average pay for a Quantity Surveyor is Rs 395,830 per year. People in this job generally don’t have more than 20 years’ experience. The highest paying skills associated with this job are Microsoft Project and Construction Estimating. Experience strongly influences salary for this job.

Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering is important in civil engineering, but also has applications in military, mining, petroleum and other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground. Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials; evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction.

A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a review of project needs to define the required material properties. Then follows a site investigation of soil, rock, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest to determine their engineering properties including how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area in or on which the engineering will take place. Investigations can include the assessment of the risk to humans, property and the environment from natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, soil liquefaction, debris flows and rockfalls.

A geotechnical engineer then determines and designs the type of foundations, earthworks, and/or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be built. Foundations are designed and constructed for structures of various sizes such as high-rise buildings, bridges, medium to large commercial buildings, and smaller structures where the soil conditions do not allow code-based design.

Career Advancement

A soil engineer, also known as a soils engineer or a geotechnical engineer, is a civil engineer who specializes in evaluating the characteristics of the ground upon which a structure is built. A soil engineer investigates and analyzes a site for such qualities as soil characteristics, composition, and drainage. Soil engineers also consider the weight-bearing capacity of the ground under a building’s foundation. They evaluate the likelihood that the building will settle or shift over time.


The average pay for a Geotechnical Engineer is Rs 595,946 per year. People in this job generally don’t have more than 10 years’ experience.

Environmental Engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of scientific and engineering principles for:

  1. Protection of human populations from the effects of adverse environmental factor
  2. Protection of environments, both local and global, from the potentially deleterious effects of natural and human activities
  3. Improvement of environmental quality.

Environmental engineering can also be described as a branch of applied science and technology that addresses the issue of energy preservation, production asset and control of waste from human and animal activities. Furthermore, it is concerned with finding plausible solutions in the field of public health, such as waterborne diseases, implementing laws which promote adequate sanitation in urban, rural and recreational areas. It involves waste water management and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, radiation protection, industrial hygiene, environmental sustainability, and public health issues as well as a knowledge of environmental engineering law. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects.

Environmental engineers use the principles of engineering, soil science, biology, and chemistry to develop solutions to environmental problems. They are involved in efforts to improve recycling, waste disposal, public health, and water and air pollution control.

Career Advancement

Environmental engineers work in a variety of settings because of the nature of the tasks they do. When they are working with other engineers and urban and regional planners, environmental engineers are likely to be in offices. When they are carrying out solutions through construction projects, they are likely to be at construction sites. Environmental engineers must have a bachelor’s degree in environmental engineering or a related field, such as civil, chemical, or general engineering. Employers also value practical experience. Therefore, cooperative engineering programs, which provide college credit for structured job experience, are valuable as well.


An Environmental Engineer earns an average salary of Rs 409,645 per year. Most people with this job move on to other positions after 10 years in this career. A skill in Engineering Design is associated with high pay for this job.

Water Resource Engineering is a specific kind of civil engineering that involves the design of new systems and equipment that help manage human water resources. Some of the areas Water Resource Engineers touch on are water treatment facilities, underground wells, and natural springs.

Water Resource Engineers must create new equipment and systems to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of water treatment and aquatic resource management. A typical workday involves the analysis of data from relevant areas, then designing new or improved facilities to enhance the cleansing effects of the water treatment system. A Water Resource Engineer must take budgetary constraints, government regulations, and other factors into consideration when designing these systems. A Water Resource Engineer may then oversee the construction and implementation of these systems to ensure that they are properly assembled. After completion, they may manage the maintenance of these systems.

Career Advancement

Water Resource Engineers are expected to obtain a Bachelor’s degree at minimum. Some states also demand that you attend an ABET-accredited program to help with the licensure process, a requirement for all engineers.

Many Water Resource Engineers go on to pursue their Masters Degrees. In fact, one in five Civil Engineers pursue higher education. This not only increases chance of hire, but also increases the possibility of landing a higher-paying management position.


A Water Resource Engineer earns an average salary of Rs 352,763 per year. Experience strongly influences pay for this job. The highest paying skills associated with this job are Project, Project Management, and Engineering Design. Most people with this job move on to other positions after 20 years in this field.